紀念孫中山先生並辛亥革命百年特輯

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創建民國 捍衛共和 1911-1922

孫中山在國外獲悉武昌起義捷報後,奔走歐美進行募款和展開外交活動。1911年12月25日返回上海。響應武昌起義的十七省代表在南京舉行會議,選舉孫中山為中華民國臨時大總統。1912年1月1日,孫中山在南京宣誓就職,宣告中華民國成立,從而結束了中國兩千多年的封建統治。孫中山領導制定了《中華民國臨時約法》,並頒布了一系列法令。

1912年,在清帝退位後,孫中山辭職讓位於袁世凱。孫中山辭職後,希望致力實業建設而視察各地,宣傳民主。針對袁世凱篡位後的反革命復辟,1913年,孫中山發動二次革命,討伐袁世凱。1917年7月孫中山南下廣州,發動了護法運動,捍衛共和。1917年8月25日,國會非常會議在廣州召開,選舉孫中山為中華民國軍政府大元帥。在認清軍閥「南與北一丘之貉後」,與1918年5月4日他憤然辭去大元帥職務,回到上海一面總結經驗,從事著作;一面積極籌劃,繼續開展對軍閥的鬥爭。1919年10月10日在上海將中華革命黨改組為中國國民黨,孫中山被推舉為中國國民黨總理。1920年11月孫中山再返廣州重建護法政府,1921年5月就任非常大總統,積準備北伐。1922年6月粵軍陳炯明叛亂,孫中山被迫回上海。

 

創建民國 捍衛共和 1911-1922

孫中山在國外獲悉武昌起義捷報後,奔走歐美進行募款和展開外交活動。1911年12月25日返回上海。響應武昌起義的十七省代表在南京舉行會議,選舉孫中山為中華民國臨時大總統。1912年1月1日,孫中山在南京宣誓就職,宣告中華民國成立,從而結束了中國兩千多年的封建統治。孫中山領導制定了《中華民國臨時約法》,並頒布了一系列法令。

1912年,在清帝退位後,孫中山辭職讓位於袁世凱。孫中山辭職後,希望致力實業建設而視察各地,宣傳民主。針對袁世凱篡位後的反革命復辟,1913年,孫中山發動二次革命,討伐袁世凱。1917年7月孫中山南下廣州,發動了護法運動,捍衛共和。1917年8月25日,國會非常會議在廣州召開,選舉孫中山為中華民國軍政府大元帥。在認清軍閥「南與北一丘之貉後」,與1918年5月4日他憤然辭去大元帥職務,回到上海 一面總結經驗,從事著作;一面積極籌劃,繼續開展對軍閥的鬥爭。1919年10月10日在上海將中華革命黨改組為中國國民黨,孫中山被推舉為中國國民黨總理。19 20年11月孫中山再返廣州重建護法政府,1921年5月就任非常大總統,積準備北伐。1922年6月粵軍陳炯明叛亂,孫中山被迫回上海。

On hearing the success of the Wuchang Uprising while he was abroad, Dr. Sun Yat-sen began to be busy seeking sponsorship in and develop the diplomatic relationship with various countries in Europe and America. In December 1911 he returned to Shanghai. Delegates of all the provinces involving in the uprising held a meeting in Nanjing and elected him president ad interim of the Republic. On January 1, 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen left Shanghai for Nanjing to take the oath of office and proclaim the founding of the Republic of China. Under his leadership, the provisional Constitution of the Republic of China formulated a series of policies and laws and decrees beneficial to democratic politics and economic development.

On April 1912 Dr. Sun Yat-sen resigned from the pr esidency and compelled by the then circumstances. He was succeeded by Yuan Shikai, who was a traitor of th e revolution. After Yuan’s declaration restoring monarchism, Dr. Sun launched the “Second revolution” against Yuan Shikai in 1913. The next year, Dr. Sun organized in Japan the China Revolutionary Party to prepare an uprising against Yuan’s regime.

In 1917, Dr. Sun called an Emergency Congress in Guangzhou to set up a military government with himself as the Generalissimo. On May 4, 1918 he resigned due to the disappointment to the warlords. He went to Shanghai, devoting himself to drafting “the Outline of Program for the establishment of the Nation” . Two years later, he reformed the China Revolutionary Party into the Kuomintang and was elected as the president of the party. He returned to Guangzhou at the end of November and assumed the post of the Provisional President of the Chinese Republic on May 5, 1921. However, he was compelled to leave again by Chen Jiongming an d his Guangdong troops.

誓師北伐 鞠躬盡瘁 1922-1925

1922年6月陳炯明叛亂,舉國憤慨,孫中山對此進行了深刻反思。1923年,他再返廣州重建大元帥府,討伐陳炯明叛軍,平定叛亂,使廣東革命根據地初步鞏固,為誓師北伐奠定了基礎。1924年1月主持召開了中國國民黨第一次全國代表大會,通過了《大會宣言》,重新解釋三民主義,還通過了孫中山親擬的《國民政府建國大綱》。19 24年5月,為發展革命武裝,在廣州創建陸軍軍官學校(又名黃埔軍校)。9月,孫中山移大本營於廣東韶關,誓師北伐。


1924年11月,孫中山應邀抱病北上,行前發表《北上宣言》,主張召開國民會議,結束軍閥統治,廢除不平等條約。1925年3月12日,係中山因病不幸在北京逝世,他全心全意為中國革命耗費了畢生精力,鞠躬盡瘁,死而後已。如今,他的愛國精神和歷史功績,永遠為全體中國人民所敬仰。他的思想在世界各國人民中享有崇高的威望。所有愛國的中國人都是 孫中山事業的繼承者,人們將永遠懷念這位劃時代

的偉人——孫中山。

In June 1922, Chen Jiongming staged an armed rebellion, which caused the great indignation of the whole nation. In 1923, Dr. Sun returned to Guangzhou to reestablish the Generalissimo, his headquarters in Guangzhou and launched a punitive assault on the rebellious army of Chen Jiongming. At the same time, he preliminarily consolidated the revolutionary base in Guangdong and paved the way for Northern Expedition. In January 1924, he hosted the first national congress of the Kuomingtang Party, in which “The Declaration of the Congress” was passed and the Three People’s Principles was reinterpreted. In May, in order to develop the military power, he also founded the Huangpu (Whampoa) Military Academy. In September, he moved his supreme headquarters to Shaoguan, Guangdong, and pledged resolution to launch the Northern Expedition. In November, 1924, Dr. Sun was invited to go to Beijing to discuss national affairs. It was here on March 12, 1925 that he died of liver cancer in

Beijing.

Until now, all the Chinese people pay respects to to Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s remains and feeling his noble spirit. People will offer their respects and cherish the memory of him.